Eva Soultogianni Log

  • Alcohol can interact with medications, usually by changing the metabolism of the alcohol and/or medication. There are two kinds of interactions: 1) pharmacodynamic interaction, in which medication effects are enhanced in the central nervous system and 2) pharmacokinetic interactions, in which alcohol interferes with the metabolism of the medication.
  • Absorption of alcohol starts in the stomach and the rate increases in the upper small intestine. When the first passage of alcohol during metabolism is the liver, it’s called “first-pass metabolism”. First-pass metabolism allows only a small fraction of ingested alcohol to be eliminated from the body.
  • There are medications that can block first pass metabolism resulting in very high blood alcohol levels. Such medications are Zantac, and Tagamet.
  • Alcohol that was not eliminated by first pass metabolism, enters the systematic circulation and it’s distributed throughout the body and it does not dissolve in fat tissues.
  • Cytochrome P450 is an alcohol metabolizing enzyme, which consists of the P450 reductase and the CYP2E1 enzyme. CYP2E1 can metabolize many compounds such as the pain medication acetaminophen, and the antibiotic isoniazid and it only metabolizes a very small fraction of ingested alcohol. When someone is intoxicated the alcohol in his system competes with the medication for CYP2E1 metabolism.
  • When the metabolic rates are too high, the medication concentration will be too low and there is no effect of the medication. When the metabolic rates are decreased, high concentrations of the medication are accumulated which may lead to harmful overdoses. Sometimes increased or decreased metabolic rated might have even fatal consequences.
  • This may vary between populations because metabolic rates are different for males and females, differs with age as well as with ethnicity and race. Most of the times such interactions also happen when alcohol is consumed right before the medication.

[Full Marks JCB]

Give 3 examples of using SMARTS queries.

SMARTS are used to describe molecular structure and patterns. They can be used in designing structures and determining their activity such as in drug designing. Moreover, they can be used in identifying an unknown substance by comparing it to the already identified structure. They can also be used in identifying a specific functional group and/or bonds and/or stereochemistry.