Anthony Lloyd II
Final project: Something along the lines of The body's reactions to high fructose corn syrup (fructose, glucose, sucrose)

Reference for assignment #2:

The article is about fructose only.

doi
[Full Marks JCB]


Fructose is sweeter than both glucose and sucrose. Now, fructose and HFCS is used in many different things, including soft drinks and other sweets. Some articles indicate fructose has a relationship with cardiovascular disease and obesity.

Since the beginning of its commercial use, consumption of fructose has increased significantly. During this period, there has been a increase in the amount of available added sugars of about 25%- corresponding to an average daily intake of about 40g of fructose. Extreme cases of daily fructose consumption come up around 90g of fructose. If the increased intake of fructose has negative impacts on the human body, the consequences can be dire.

Before the Americas were “discovered” by Christopher Columbus, fructose was only found in a few items that humans ate; and in small quantities, at that. Honey, dates, grapes, apples, persimmons, bluberries, molasses, and figs are some of those items.

Currently, most fructose in American diets doesn’t come from the fruits mentioned above, instead, it comes from HFCS or sucrose. Soft drinks are the biggest contributor to the consumption of HFCS and soft drink consumption has been on the rise. (about 2 servings/week to about 2 servings/day from 1942 to 2000)

Fructose is an intermediate in the body’s breakdown process of glucose molecules (glycolysis). However, by itself, it is not a necessary nutrient for the body and is digested in a different manner than glucose. Fructose is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and broken down by liver cells. Very little- about 1e-5 Molar compared to 5.5e-4 Molar glucose- is absorbed into the bloodstream.

Glucose stimulates insulin release from the pancreas while fructose doesn’t. Most cells have low quantities of glut-5 transporter, an enzyme that helps fructose pass through cell membranes. Once fructose finally reached liver cells, it is broken into glycerol- the backbone of triacylglycerols (fats).

Fructose, metabolized in the liver, gains phosphate groups in the 1-position (like glucose does on both ends during the energy investment phase of glycolysis) by a special process that is faster than the usual phosphofructokinase method. High consumption and; therefore, metabolism of fructose contributes to more lipids (fats) circulating in the body than low-fructose diets. Studies in other mammals consuming high-fructose diets shows consistent trends of hyperlipidemia. More recent reports hypothesize that high-fructose diets could contribute to high uric acid (gout) and heart disease. This is based off of the ability of the ADP (adenine diphosphate)- formed from the loss of a phosphate group of ATP (adenine triphosphate)- to be metabolized to uric acid. This process makes use of nitric oxide, which is important in vascular functions.



What are 3 chemistry journals that publish articles on inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs)?

Inductively Coupled Plasmas are plasmas that are created by electric currents. In specific, the alternating current is passed through coils to create time-varying magnetic fields that excite the electrons in the surrounding gas.

Analytical Chemistry
Example: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ac00061a002
A chemical journal hosted by the American Chemical Society focusing on analytical chemistry.

Journal of Analytical Spectrometry
Example: http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/1996/ja/ja9961100303/unauth
“Innovative research on the fundamental theory and application of spectrometric techniques.”

Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Example: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7qr6ad69v181a0ct/fulltext.pdf
A chemical journal that focuses strongly on Analytical Chemistry. It is now called Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2002-2011).